CHUYÊN ĐỀ 21 ĐẢO NGỮ - INVERSIONS

Thứ hai - 02/03/2020 22:17

 

 

A.LÍ THUYẾT

 

CHUYÊN ĐỀ 21

ĐẢO NGỮ - INVERSIONS

 

Đảongữlàhìnhthứcđảongượcvịtríthôngthườngcủachủtừvàđộngtừtrongmộtcâu, đượcdùngđểnhấnmạnhmộtthànhphần hay ý nàođótrongcâu.

 

Cácdạngđảongữ:

 

STT

Cácdạngđảongữ

Côngthức

Vídụ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cáccụmtừcó NO

No/Not + N + Trợđộngtừ + S + Độngtừ

Not a tear did she shed when the story ended in a tragedy.

At no time = Never = Under/In no circumstances

(khôngbaogiờ)

At no time did he suspect that his girlfriend was an enemy spy.

By no means

(hoàntoànkhông)

By no means is she poor. She only pretends to be.

For no reason

(khôngvìlí do gì)

For no reason will we surrender.

In no way

 

(khôngsaocóthể)

In no way could ridiculous story.

I

believe

in

a

On no condition = On no account +

Trợđộngtừ + S + Độngtừ

(dùbấtcứlí do gìcũngkhông)

On no account should you be late for the exam.

No longer (khôngcònnữa)

No longer does he make mistakes.

No where + Trợđộngtừ + S + Độngtừ

(khôngnơinào, không ở đâu)

No wherecan the keys be found.

 

 

2

Đảongữvớicáctrạngtừphủđịnh

Never, Rarely, Seldom, Little, Hardly, Scarcely, Barely,...

Little did he know the truth.

Never in my life have I been in such an embarrassingsituation.

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

ĐảongữvớiONLY

Only after + S + V + Trợđộngtừ + S + V

(chỉsaukhi)

Only after I had left home did I  realize how important my family played a role in mylife.

Only after + N + Trợđộngtừ + S + V

(chỉsaukhi)

Only after his father's retirement did he take over thecompany.

Only by + V-ing + Trợđộngtừ + S + V

(chỉbằngcách)

Only by studying hard can you pass theexam.

Only if + S + V + Trợđộngtừ + S + V

(chỉnếu)

Only if you promise to keep secret will I tell you about it.

                 

 

 

 

Only when + S + V + Trợđộngtừ + S + V (chỉkhi)

Only when you grow up can you understand this matter.

Only with + N + trợđộngtừ + S + V (chỉvới)

Only with your help can we manage.

Only once/ Only later/ Only in this way/ Only then + Trợđộngtừ + Chủngữ + Độngtừ

Only once have I met her.

Only later did I realize I was wrong.

 

 

4

 

 

Hardly No sooner

Hardly/barely/scarcely + had + S + Vp2 + when + S + V (quákhứđơn)

= No sooner + had + S + Vp2+ than + S + V (quákhứđơn)

(Ngaykhi/vừamới... thì)

Hardly had I gone to bed when the telephone rang.

= No sooner had I gone to bed than  the telephonerang.

 

5

Not only

… but also

Not only + Trợđộngtừ + Chủngữ + Độngtừ + but also + Chủngữ + Độngtừ (khôngnhững... màcòn)

Not only does she sing beautifully but also she learns well.

 

 

 

6

 

 

So/Such ... that

So + Tínhtừ + V + chủngữ + that+ clause

Such + be + N + that + clause/ N + be + such + that + clause

(quá... đếnnỗimà)

So beautiful is she that many boys run after her.

Her anger was such that she broke the vase.

= Such was her anger that she broke the vase.

 

 

7

 

Not until/ Not till

Not until/till + Time/Time clause + Trợđộngtừ + Chủngữ + Độngtừ

(mãiđếnkhi)

Not until/till midnight did he come home.

Not until/till I was 8 did I know how to ride abike.

8

Neither

Neither + Trợđộngtừ + Chủngữ + Độngtừ

Neither    is     there    excitement                 nor entertainment in this smalltown.

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

Đảongữvớicâuđiềukiện

Câuđiềukiệnloại 1:

Should + S+V, V + O /S + will, can... + V

Should he come, please tell him to see me.

Câuđiêukiệnloại 2:

Were + S + (to V) + ..., S + would/could + V

WereI you, I would apply for that job. Were I to have enough money, I would buy that car.

Câuđiềukiệnloại 3:

Had + S + Vp2, S + would/could + have + Vp2

Had the car in the front not stopped so suddenly, the accidents wouldn't have happened.

 

 

10

 

 

Although

Although/even though/though + S + V, S +V

= Much as + S + V, S + V

= No matter what + S + V, S + V hoặc No matter how + adj/adv + S + V, S + V

Although the exercise is difficult, the boys can solveit.

= Much as the exercise is difficult, the boys can solveit.

= No matter how difficult the exercise

 

 

 

 

= However + adj/adv + S + V = Adj/adv + as/though + S + V, S + V

is, the boys can solve it.

= However difficult the exercise is, the boys can solve it.

= Difficult as the exercise is, the boys can solve it.

11

NOR

Nor + Trợđộngtừ + Chủngữ + Độngtừ

He doesn't smoke, nor does he drink.

 

12

Đảongữcó SO/ NEITHER

So/Neither + Trợđộngtừ + Chủngữ

I can't sing well, neither can my sister. He loves football, so do I.

 

 

 

13

Đảongữvớicáctrạngtừchỉphươnghướng/ nơichốn

Adv of place + V + S

Near my house is a bus stop.

 

14

Đảongữvớicụmphântừ

Cụmphântừ(V-ing/Vp2) + V + S

Situated in the central mountains of Alaska is a peak named Denali.

Coming first in the race was my sister.

 

  1. BÀI TẬP ÁPDỤNG

Exercise 1: Viếtlạicâusửdụnghìnhthứcđảongữ

  1. There is a temple on the top of thehill.

ŽOn the..........................................................................................................................................................

  1. The flies are on thebook.

ŽOn the book.................................................................................................................................................

  1. Lombard Street is found in SanFrancisco.

ŽFound ...........................................................................................................................................................

  1. A man with a gun stood in thedoorway.

ŽIn the doorway .............................................................................................................................................

  1. Although she is young, she knows a greatdeal.

Ž Young as .....................................................................................................................................................

  1. Although he studies hard, he makes littleprogress.

Ž Hard as ........................................................................................................................................................

  1. If you were a fish, the cat would eatyou.

Ž Were............................................................................................................................................................

  1. If your father had known this, he would have given youadvice.

ŽHad...............................................................................................................................................................

  1. If you should need my help, phone me atonce.

ŽShould .........................................................................................................................................................

 

  1. I've never been moreinsulted.

Ž Never...........................................................................................................................................................

  1. He seldom sees anythingstrange.

ŽSeldom ........................................................................................................................................................

  1. She rarely saw him looking somiserable.

Ž Rarely..........................................................................................................................................................

  1. The man can hardly walk without astick.

ŽHardly .........................................................................................................................................................

  1. She scarcely phones us after 9.00p.m.

Ž Scarcely.......................................................................................................................................................

  1. He not only studies well, but also he singsperfectly.

Ž Not only ......................................................................................................................................................

  1. She is not only rich, but she is alsobeautiful.

Ž Not only ......................................................................................................................................................

  1. He didn't say aword.

ŽNot ..............................................................................................................................................................

  1. He didn't give me apenny.

Ž No................................................................................................................................................................

  1. They little realized that Ted was a secretagent.

Ž Little............................................................................................................................................................

  1. I can't find my passportanywhere.

Ž Nowhere......................................................................................................................................................

 

Exercise 2: Viếtlạicâusửdụnghìnhthứcđảongữ

  1. He by no means intends to criticize youridea.

ŽBy no means................................................................................................................................................

  1. I never suspectyou.

Ž At no time ...................................................................................................................................................

  1. I could in no way agree withyou.

Ž In no way ....................................................................................................................................................

  1. Scarcely had I got home when it began torain.

Ž No sooner ....................................................................................................................................................

  1. I didn't wake up until 8 amtoday.

Ž Not until ......................................................................................................................................................

  1. I didn't know him until I started to studyEnglish.

Ž Not until ......................................................................................................................................................

  1. He called me only when he neededhelp.

Ž Only when...................................................................................................................................................

  1. He neither has called on her nor will doso.

ŽNeither ........................................................................................................................................................

 

  1. You shouldn't go out late under anycircumstances.

ŽUnder no circumstances..............................................................................................................................

  1. This switch must be touched on noaccount.

Ž On no account .............................................................................................................................................

  1. I understood the problem onlythen.

Ž Only then.....................................................................................................................................................

  1. We will be able to accomplish this great task only by hardwork.

Ž Only by .......................................................................................................................................................

  1. I didn't post it untillater.

Ž Only later ....................................................................................................................................................

  1. He came home only atmidnight.

Ž Only at midnight .........................................................................................................................................

  1. The doctor was so angry that none of the nurses dared toutter.

ŽSuch ............................................................................................................................................................

  1. I can forgive you only if you tell me thetruth.

Ž Only if .........................................................................................................................................................

  1. I realized that I'd seen the film before only after the filmstarted.

Ž Only after ....................................................................................................................................................

  1. You can learn English well only in thisway.

Ž Only in this way ..........................................................................................................................................

  1. The film was so moving that I couldn't helpcrying.

Ž So moving ...................................................................................................................................................

  1. If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russianbook.

Ž Were............................................................................................................................................................

 

Exercise 3: Chọnphươngánđúng

  1. Notonly                   to determine the depth of the ocean floor, but it is also used to locateoil.

A. seismologyisused          B.usingseismology         C. isseismologyused        D. to useseismology

  1.                  advised on what and how to prepare for the interview, he might have got thejob.

A. Hadhe been                  B. If he had                    C. Unless hehad been      D. Were he tobe

  1. Notuntil 1856                    across the MississippiRiver.

A. the first bridgewasbuilt                                        B. was the first bridgebuilt

C. the firstbridge built                                               D. did the first bridgebuild

  1. Only when yougrowup,                    the truth.

A. youwillknow                B. you know                  C. do you know               D. will youknow

  1.                  Mozart was an accomplished compose while still achild.

A. Remarkable asitseems                                         B. As it seemsremarkable

C. No matter remarkableitseems                               D. Remarkable however itseem

  1. Out                  for a walk after she finished doing herhomework.

A. didMarygo                    B.Marywent                   C. Marydid go                 D. wentMary

 

  1.                  she could not sayanything.

A. So upset wasshethat                                            B. So upset wasshe

C. However upset wasshethat                                  D. Therefore upset was shethat

  1.                with my previous job, I would have won a higher promotionandI                   in this unfortunate position now.

A. Unless I had stayed /amnot                                  B. If I stayed / would notbe

C. If had I stayed / willnot be                                   D. Had I stayed / would notbe

  1. Notonly                   to speak to him, but she also vowed never to see himagain.

A.sherefused                     B. didsherefuse               C. shedid refuse               D. when sherefused

  1.                  an emergency arise, call911.

A.Should                           B. If                                C. Will                             D.Were

  1. Nowhere in the northern section of theUnitedStates                      for growing citrus crops.

A. is there suitability oftheclimate                            B. where the climate issuitable

C. the climateissuitable                                             D. is the climatesuitable

  1. Only after she had finished the course did sherealizeshe                      a wrongchoice.

A.had made                       B. has made                    C. had beenmaking          D. wasmaking

  1. Never                  him stand on the deserted stationplatform.

A. will I forgettosee                                                  B. I will forget tosee

C. will Iforgetseeing                                                 D. I will forgetseeing

  1. The instructor blew his whistleand                   

A. off the runnerswererunning                                 B. off ran therunners

C. off were runningthe runners                                D. the runners runsoff

  1. Seldom                  far enough north to disturb South Pacific shippinglanes.

A. Antarctic icebergswillmove                                 B. will Antarctic icebergsmove

C. will moveAntarcticicebergs                                 D. move Antarctic icebergswill

  1.                  will China be the first to use nuclearweapons.

A. Atany time                    B. Atno time                   C. Ata time                      D. At onetime

  1. He listened so attentively that not aword                    

A. hehadmissed                 B. hemissed                    C. hedidn't miss               D. did hemiss

  1. We spent nearly 3 hours waiting outside the station, thenout                    

A. thestarcame                   B. did thestarcome          C. camethe star                D. be the starcoming

  1. The African killer bees could not be handled safely,nor                    

A. their honey couldbe harvested                             B. harvested could their honeybe

C. could not their honeybeharvested                        D. could their honey beharvested

  1. Down                  when he was passing under thetree.

A. anapplefall                    B. an applefell                C. did an apple fall           D. fell anapple

 

Exercise 4: Chia dạngđúngcủađộngtừtrongngoặc ở cácdạngđảongữ

  1. Not onlythey(buy)                     the house but also the car lastyear.
  2. You(come)                   early, we'llstart.

 

  1. They(live)                    in Australia now, they would goswimming.
  2. Bob(notinterfere)                      in his sister' marital problems, there wouldn't have been peace between them.
  3. Hardly thedoctor(fall)                     asleep when thetelephone(wake)                     him up.
  4. Only by working hardhe(manage)                     to pass the exam.
  5. No soonerhe(return)                     from his walk thanhe(get)                     down to writing theletter.
  6. Onlyby(operate)                     immediately can you save youreyesight.
  7. Only when they told me about itI (realize)                     what I hadmissed.
  8. Only after a new pay offer theworkers(call)                     off the strike.
  9. Only later the factsall(make)                     public.
  10. Not until the bell ranghe(finish)                     his work.
  11. Rarelyshe(travel)                     more than fifty miles from her village.
  12. Never in my lifeI(see)                     such amess.
  13. Only if everybody agreedI (accept)                    this position.